Wednesday, 25 April 2012
The slang term "hot money" is used in several different ways. In the financial world, hot money is money which is moved quickly between investments to take advantage of fluctuating interest rates, with the goal of obtaining the best interest rate possible for the funds. The term is also used in a criminal sense to describe hard currency which can be linked with a robbery due to special identifying characteristics.
In the world of finance, some investors opt to look for the best short term profits rather than taking long term positions. They move funds quickly from place to place as interest rates change. For example, someone might deposit funds in a bank offering 5 percent on a six month certificate of deposit, and pull the funds out once the term is over to move to another bank offering a competitive rate. Hot money moves rapidly in and out of different types of investment opportunities, making money for the investor who controls it.
In addition to moving money domestically to take advantage of favorable rates of interest, investors can also move hot money internationally. Every day, substantial amounts of currency flow in and out of many nations; when a country has high interest rates, money comes in, and the hot money strengthens the economy because it holds more currency reserves. Meanwhile, countries with lower rates which are losing money because people invest elsewhere experience a decline in the value of their currency. Some nations attempt to limit the effect of shifting investments on currency values by requiring internationally transferred funds to remain for a set period of time, such as one year.
Criminally, hot money is money which is designed to be traceable. This can include money which has been specially marked, money packaged with a dye pack which will burst when the package is opened, and money with known serial numbers. Bank tellers may keep funds known as "bait money" in their drawers for the specific purpose of having currency which can be traced in the event that a robbery occurs.
Criminals want to avoid hot money because if they are caught with a large amount of marked or traceable currency, they can be linked with a crime. Some criminals demanding payments will make specifications about how the money is to be packaged in order to make it difficult to trace. Criminals who do take hot money may use a variety of techniques to evade detection, but savvy law enforcement can sometimes trail them by following "hot" bills as they come into banks.
Wednesday, 18 April 2012
Nail hardener is a product applied to the fingernails to make them longer and more resistant to breakage, in addition to protecting them from further damage. It may be applied to brittle nails once a week or more before a manicure. There are a few different types of nail hardeners on the market, which work differently to strengthen nails.
The first type of nail hardener is similar to nail polish. It is applied to the nail, where it hardens and makes the nail stronger, like a protective shield. This type of nail hardener does not actually penetrate the nail and physically change it; it simply rests on top. The second type of hardener generally contains ingredients such as calcium or formalin, which penetrate into the molecular structure of the nail, and make it tougher by affecting the keratin in the nail.
Each of type of nail hardener can be effective, but it is recommended that the ones containing formalin — a solution that contains formaldehyde — be used sparingly. This is because continued use of formaldehyde can cause the nail to flake and crack, having the opposite of the desired effect. Users should be sure to follow the directions on the bottle when using these products to prevent overuse and damage to the nail. In general, nail hardener should not be applied to the cuticle, and care should be taken to not get the hardener into the nail bed or underneath the tip of the nail.
Nail hardener is sold in a bottle similar to nail polish, and may be found in most drugstores in the nail care section. Some nail hardeners contain additional ingredients designed to nourish the nails and encourage growth, but some simply protect the nail to encourage it to grow on its own. With proper care of nails, it may not be necessary to use a nail hardener at all.
It is fairly simple to regularly care for the nails to make them strong and resistant to breaking. When filing the nails, people should file in one direction only, not with a see-saw motion. Any rough edges should be filed to prevent them from catching on anything. Cuticles should be pressed back, but not clipped, as this can lead to infection. The hands and nails should be moisturized daily, particularly before bed; moisturized nails are much stronger. In addition, eating a balanced diet with enough calcium and protein is a great way to improve the hardness of the nails, as is taking a multivitamin every day.